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experimental gismu x1 is measured in x2 (number, default 1) bits/shannons (unit of data/information) of logarithmic base x3 (default 2) See skami, datni, bitnymei, baitni // Decimal prefixed forms (powers of 1000): ki'orbitni megbitni gigbitni tetybitni petybitni xexybitni zepybitni gotybitni // Binary prefixed forms (powers of 1024): kirbibitni merbibitni girbibitni terbibitni perbibitni xerbibitni zerbibitni gorbibitni // x3 is for defining units with bases other than 2, e.g. trits (bitnrci), nats (bitnrte'o), dits/bans/hartleys (bitnrdau)
gismu rafsi: caj x1 exchanges/trades/barters commodity x2 for x3 with x4; x1, x4 is a trader/merchant/businessman. Also (adjective:) x1, x2, x4 is/are commercial (better expressed as ka canja, kamcanja). x2/x3 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event (possibly service), or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posycanja for unambiguous semantics); (cf. dunda, friti, vecnu, zarci, jdini, pleji, jdima, jerna, kargu; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, banxa, cirko, dunda, janta, kargu, prali, sfasa, zivle)
gismu x1 is a season/is seasonal [cyclical interval], defined by interval/property x2, of year(s) x3. Also anniversary (= citsydei, na'arcitsydei), jubilee (= mumnoncitsi); the period of time may be short or long as indicated by x2, and may occur every year or every nth year as indicated by x3 (default every year); (x2 and/or x3 may need metaphorical restriction: djecitsi, pavdeicitsi; also equinox, solstice, time of year. See also cedra, crisa, critu, dunra, ranji, temci, vensa, jbena.
experimental gismu x1 is meta to/an example of x2 that describes such an object/concept/notion/system/topic/etc., being meta in property/aspect x3, and which has features x4, governed by/considered in system/considerations/epistemology/theory x5; x1 is meta (a particular type of abstraction of x2 so as to apply to itself in some sense); x1 is an/a piece of/an example of x2 that applies fractally thereto Does not (necessarily) mean "beyond", "after", "beside"; in some (rather pictoral) senses, these meanings may be necessary but not sufficient for being meta in this sense; thus, "metaphysics" should not be translated using this word. x1 is an object, notion, topic, system, etc. which applies to x2 but which is itself an example thereof; for example, the meanings of the words "metalinguistics" and "metadata" are meta in this sense. It is not necessarily directly self-referential, but could be fractally applicative. x1 is an X that is about (another) X; x1 is an abstraction of X so as to apply to X. x1 does not necessarily abstract [from] (in one sense), but is abstract to, x2. See also: xulta (generalized/weaker), sucta.
fu'ivla x1 is the graph on vertices/nodes x2 (set) and edges x3 (set of ordered tuples of vertices in x2) and with additional properties x4. A "web"/"network". An element of x2 is a "place" in a more generic/abstract/metaphoric sense than spatial; must be discrete. Thus, webpages, family diagrams, lattices, pages in a book, cities and roadways on a map, etc. constitute graphs. x1 also includes trees. Notice that both x2 and x3 are sets; an element of x3 is an ordered pair/2-tuple, but the order does not matter unless x1 is oriented, in which case the edge runs from the first node in the tuple to the second node in the tuple. x4 can include defining features, weights, etc. Equivalent to grafu (which is merely the gismu form of this word); very similar to tcana.
gismu x1 (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x2 for work/service x3 (activity). Also x2 earnings, reward (= zanseljerna or nemjerna), punishment/comeuppance (= sfaseljerna, malseljerna); x3 behavior; job (= terjerna); x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyjerna, posyseljerna for unambiguous semantics). See also jibri, pleji, vecnu, cnemu, canja, jdima, jinga, prali, sfasa, janta, kargu, vamji.
gismu rafsi: jig ji'a x1 (person/team) wins/gains prize x2 from/over x3 [competitors/losers] in competition x4. Also: x1 is a victor; x2 reward; x3 competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs. the set of those competing for a goal; x2 may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumti-raising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyji'a, posyselji'a for unambiguous semantics). See also cirko, jivna, talsa, cnemu, prali, pleji, sfasa, jdima, jerna, bradi, kargu, kelci.
gismu rafsi: sau x1 is old/familiar/well-known to observer x2 in feature x3 (ka) by standard x4. This can cover both meanings of old. Old in years, i.e. age, can be conveyed through x2 = the world, life, existence (= loi nu zasti); in usage this has been a common default for ellipsis. However slabu is not the opposite of 'young' (= nalci'o, tolci'o), but the opposite of 'new' (= tolni'o); also ancient (= tcesau), age (= nilsau); x2 is used to x1 (= selsau for reordered places); historic/historical (= cirsau, cirselcedra; also vaipru). (cf. clani, citno, cnino, se djuno; not the opposite of citno, djuno)
lujvo x1=m1 is shade-darkened/has shadow x2=c1 cast upon it by obfuscating/blocking/(at least semi-)opaque object x3=c2 from energy/light/transmission source x4=c3; x2 is the shadow-eclipse caste upon x1 by x3, blocking radiation from x4 Possible uses include (but are not limited to) lunar-style eclipses in which the eclipsed object (as seen from another object) is not physically blocked from sight by yet another object but is shaded from sight by the shadow cast upon it by some object (possibly the one from which the eclipse is viewed). There is no real physical difference between this and a solar-style eclipse (both rely on linear alignment of bodies), but the chosen vantage point varies among them and thus causes different interpretations of the same phenomenon of alignment. In other words, it is an eclipse in which the eclipsed object is viewed to be darkened by a shadow (caste upon it by some object) with no significant blocking/impeding body physically betwixt the eclipsed object and the object from which viewing of the eclipse occurs.
experimental gismu x1 is clockwise/right-turn-direction of[/to] x2 along/following track x3 [path] in frame of reference x4 (where the axis is within the region defined by the track as the boundary, as viewed from and defined by view(er) x4; see notes); x1 is locally to the right of x2, according to x4, constrained along x3; x1 is along a right turn from x2 along path x3, as viewed in frame x4. Angular/curling direction: clockwise. he orientation of the path determines x4 but does not factor into consideration for x3. Further glosses: clockwise, locally rightward, right-turning (with no bulk translation) in a way that would be characterized as "negative" by the right-hand rule (aligned with and in the direction of a basis vector, at least for a given component). x1 is left-handedly/clockwise(ly) oriented relative to x2 on/along x3 in frame of reference x4. x1 is left-handed (one sense) from x2 [more accurately: moving from x2 to x1 requires a(n imaginary) motion that is left-handed about/along x3 as seen in frame/orientation/perspective x4]. x1 is to the path-following right of x2 (where the path is connected; as such, x1 is also be to the path-following left of x2, although there is an implication that the former is the smaller (or equal-length) path). See also: zucna, du'ei (left-handed vectorial cross product), du'oi (modal). Proposed short rafsi: -tso-.
fu'ivla x1 is a polyform/polyplet/polyomino/polyabolo/polyiamond (etc.) composed of parts/'tile' polytope x2 arranged in (finite) unified shape/pattern x3 in ambient space x4 and subject to rules/restrictions/conditions x5 The number arrangement and rules may be as generic/vague as desired. The number of polytope 'tiles' used can be specified in the third of fifth terbri as desired; the polytopes used need not all be the same, nor regular, so long as the arrangement is meaningful and possible. One of the main differences between rectangular polyplets and polyominoes is that polyominoes cannot have their polytope tiles touching only at their vertices whereas polyplets can (thus, polyominoes are a subset of the rectangular polyplets); this difference can be specified in the final terbri. A tiling of a space may be considered to be an infinite polyform, but that is rather pathological and we can reasonably assume that polyforms referenced by this word will be finite. The polyform is considered to be a unified whole entity. The ambient space is usually going to be the Euclidean space of the same dimension as the polytopes (and the former dimension cannot be exceeded by the latter except in the marginal case of lower-dimensional (id est: hyperplanar) arrangements, in which case parallel cross-sections are really being considered); this space determines the rigid-motion/symmetry isomorphisms of various polyforms (Z and S tetraminoes are non-isomorphic under rigid-motion in the Euclidean plane but are so isomorphic in Euclidean 3-space). The ambient space also determines the expression of (and indeed the 'allowed') polytopes: spherical geometry allows for digons to be arranged so as to form a polyform, but Euclidean 2-space prohibits such objects from the set of possible polygons. The default polytope will probably be a 2-dimensional square; thus the default ambient space will likely be Euclidean 2-space. See also: karda, korfaipletomino
fu'ivla x1 is a bus/coach for carrying passengers x2, propelled by x3 See also sorprekarce, sorpeka, trene, taksi. For denoting passengers, engine, towns and cities etc. used in combination with karce, carce, marce, tcadu.
fu'ivla x1 (agent) consigns (by thought, word, or deed) x2 (patient) to fate x3 (abstraction) So-called "neutral-dapma"; zandapma would be the connotationally positive form, while dapma would be the connotationally negative form. See pacna, dimna, a'o, di'ai
fu'ivla x1 is Avogadro constant N_{A} [ approximately equal to: 6.02214129(27)×10^{23} mol^{−1}], expressed in units x2 in paradigm/system/metaphysics/universe x3 (default: this, our actual, physical universe) See also plankexu, tcelerita, gravnutnoia, boltsemaku, ocnerta, molro, kamre
gismu rafsi: bac x1 exceeds/is beyond limit/boundary x2 from x3 in property/amount x4 (ka/ni). On the other side of a bound, but not necessarily directly 'across' nor at the shortest plausible distance (per ragve); also not limited to position in space. See also dukse, ragve, zmadu, kuspe.
gismu rafsi: bad x1 (event) defends/protects x2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential x3 (event). Also secures (verb); x1 wards/resists x3; protective cover/shield (= badgai). See also ckape, fanta, fapro, marbi, rivbi, zunti, snura, binra, lunbe, pulji.