bitni
experimental gismu x_{1} is measured in x_{2} (number, default 1) bits/shannons (unit of data/information) of logarithmic base x_{3} (default 2) See skami, datni, bitnymei, baitni // Decimal prefixed forms (powers of 1000): ki'orbitni megbitni gigbitni tetybitni petybitni xexybitni zepybitni gotybitni // Binary prefixed forms (powers of 1024): kirbibitni merbibitni girbibitni terbibitni perbibitni xerbibitni zerbibitni gorbibitni // x_{3} is for defining units with bases other than 2, e.g. trits (bitnrci), nats (bitnrte'o), dits/bans/hartleys (bitnrdau)


canja
gismu rafsi: caj x_{1} exchanges/trades/barters commodity x_{2} for x_{3} with x_{4}; x_{1}, x_{4} is a trader/merchant/businessman. Also (adjective:) x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{4} is/are commercial (better expressed as ka canja, kamcanja). x_{2}/x_{3} may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event (possibly service), or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posycanja for unambiguous semantics); (cf. dunda, friti, vecnu, zarci, jdini, pleji, jdima, jerna, kargu; see note at jdima on cost/price/value distinction, banxa, cirko, dunda, janta, kargu, prali, sfasa, zivle)


citsi
gismu x_{1} is a season/is seasonal [cyclical interval], defined by interval/property x_{2}, of year(s) x_{3}. Also anniversary (= citsydei, na'arcitsydei), jubilee (= mumnoncitsi); the period of time may be short or long as indicated by x_{2}, and may occur every year or every nth year as indicated by x_{3} (default every year); (x_{2} and/or x_{3} may need metaphorical restriction: djecitsi, pavdeicitsi; also equinox, solstice, time of year. See also cedra, crisa, critu, dunra, ranji, temci, vensa, jbena.


cmeta
experimental gismu x_{1} is meta to/an example of x_{2} that describes such an object/concept/notion/system/topic/etc., being meta in property/aspect x_{3}, and which has features x_{4}, governed by/considered in system/considerations/epistemology/theory x_{5}; x_{1} is meta (a particular type of abstraction of x_{2} so as to apply to itself in some sense); x_{1} is an/a piece of/an example of x_{2} that applies fractally thereto Does not (necessarily) mean "beyond", "after", "beside"; in some (rather pictoral) senses, these meanings may be necessary but not sufficient for being meta in this sense; thus, "metaphysics" should not be translated using this word. x1 is an object, notion, topic, system, etc. which applies to x2 but which is itself an example thereof; for example, the meanings of the words "metalinguistics" and "metadata" are meta in this sense. It is not necessarily directly selfreferential, but could be fractally applicative. x1 is an X that is about (another) X; x1 is an abstraction of X so as to apply to X. x1 does not necessarily abstract [from] (in one sense), but is abstract to, x2. See also: xulta (generalized/weaker), sucta.


grafetu
fu'ivla x_{1} is the graph on vertices/nodes x_{2} (set) and edges x_{3} (set of ordered tuples of vertices in x_{2}) and with additional properties x_{4}. A "web"/"network". An element of x2 is a "place" in a more generic/abstract/metaphoric sense than spatial; must be discrete. Thus, webpages, family diagrams, lattices, pages in a book, cities and roadways on a map, etc. constitute graphs. x1 also includes trees. Notice that both x2 and x3 are sets; an element of x3 is an ordered pair/2tuple, but the order does not matter unless x1 is oriented, in which case the edge runs from the first node in the tuple to the second node in the tuple. x4 can include defining features, weights, etc. Equivalent to grafu (which is merely the gismu form of this word); very similar to tcana.


jerna
gismu x_{1} (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x_{2} for work/service x_{3} (activity). Also x_{2} earnings, reward (= zanseljerna or nemjerna), punishment/comeuppance (= sfaseljerna, malseljerna); x_{3} behavior; job (= terjerna); x_{2} may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyjerna, posyseljerna for unambiguous semantics). See also jibri, pleji, vecnu, cnemu, canja, jdima, jinga, prali, sfasa, janta, kargu, vamji.


jinga
gismu rafsi: jig ji'a x_{1} (person/team) wins/gains prize x_{2} from/over x_{3} [competitors/losers] in competition x_{4}. Also: x_{1} is a victor; x_{2} reward; x_{3} competitors here are opponents and in many situations, defeated/losers, vs. the set of those competing for a goal; x_{2} may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posyji'a, posyselji'a for unambiguous semantics). See also cirko, jivna, talsa, cnemu, prali, pleji, sfasa, jdima, jerna, bradi, kargu, kelci.


slabu
gismu rafsi: sau x_{1} is old/familiar/wellknown to observer x_{2} in feature x_{3} (ka) by standard x_{4}. This can cover both meanings of old. Old in years, i.e. age, can be conveyed through x_{2} = the world, life, existence (= loi nu zasti); in usage this has been a common default for ellipsis. However slabu is not the opposite of 'young' (= nalci'o, tolci'o), but the opposite of 'new' (= tolni'o); also ancient (= tcesau), age (= nilsau); x_{2} is used to x_{1} (= selsau for reordered places); historic/historical (= cirsau, cirselcedra; also vaipru). (cf. clani, citno, cnino, se djuno; not the opposite of citno, djuno)


ti'ormanku
lujvo x_{1}=m_{1} is shadedarkened/has shadow x_{2}=c_{1} cast upon it by obfuscating/blocking/(at least semi)opaque object x_{3}=c_{2} from energy/light/transmission source x_{4}=c_{3}; x_{2} is the shadoweclipse caste upon x_{1} by x_{3}, blocking radiation from x_{4} Possible uses include (but are not limited to) lunarstyle eclipses in which the eclipsed object (as seen from another object) is not physically blocked from sight by yet another object but is shaded from sight by the shadow cast upon it by some object (possibly the one from which the eclipse is viewed). There is no real physical difference between this and a solarstyle eclipse (both rely on linear alignment of bodies), but the chosen vantage point varies among them and thus causes different interpretations of the same phenomenon of alignment. In other words, it is an eclipse in which the eclipsed object is viewed to be darkened by a shadow (caste upon it by some object) with no significant blocking/impeding body physically betwixt the eclipsed object and the object from which viewing of the eclipse occurs.


dutso
experimental gismu x_{1} is clockwise/rightturndirection of[/to] x_{2} along/following track x_{3} [path] in frame of reference x_{4} (where the axis is within the region defined by the track as the boundary, as viewed from and defined by view(er) x_{4}; see notes); x_{1} is locally to the right of x_{2}, according to x_{4}, constrained along x_{3}; x_{1} is along a right turn from x_{2} along path x_{3}, as viewed in frame x_{4}. Angular/curling direction: clockwise. he orientation of the path determines x4 but does not factor into consideration for x3. Further glosses: clockwise, locally rightward, rightturning (with no bulk translation) in a way that would be characterized as "negative" by the righthand rule (aligned with and in the direction of a basis vector, at least for a given component). x1 is lefthandedly/clockwise(ly) oriented relative to x2 on/along x3 in frame of reference x4. x1 is lefthanded (one sense) from x2 [more accurately: moving from x2 to x1 requires a(n imaginary) motion that is lefthanded about/along x3 as seen in frame/orientation/perspective x4]. x1 is to the pathfollowing right of x2 (where the path is connected; as such, x1 is also be to the pathfollowing left of x2, although there is an implication that the former is the smaller (or equallength) path). See also: zucna, du'ei (lefthanded vectorial cross product), du'oi (modal). Proposed short rafsi: tso.


pletomino
fu'ivla x1 is a polyform/polyplet/polyomino/polyabolo/polyiamond (etc.) composed of parts/'tile' polytope x2 arranged in (finite) unified shape/pattern x3 in ambient space x4 and subject to rules/restrictions/conditions x5 The number arrangement and rules may be as generic/vague as desired. The number of polytope 'tiles' used can be specified in the third of fifth terbri as desired; the polytopes used need not all be the same, nor regular, so long as the arrangement is meaningful and possible. One of the main differences between rectangular polyplets and polyominoes is that polyominoes cannot have their polytope tiles touching only at their vertices whereas polyplets can (thus, polyominoes are a subset of the rectangular polyplets); this difference can be specified in the final terbri. A tiling of a space may be considered to be an infinite polyform, but that is rather pathological and we can reasonably assume that polyforms referenced by this word will be finite. The polyform is considered to be a unified whole entity. The ambient space is usually going to be the Euclidean space of the same dimension as the polytopes (and the former dimension cannot be exceeded by the latter except in the marginal case of lowerdimensional (id est: hyperplanar) arrangements, in which case parallel crosssections are really being considered); this space determines the rigidmotion/symmetry isomorphisms of various polyforms (Z and S tetraminoes are nonisomorphic under rigidmotion in the Euclidean plane but are so isomorphic in Euclidean 3space). The ambient space also determines the expression of (and indeed the 'allowed') polytopes: spherical geometry allows for digons to be arranged so as to form a polyform, but Euclidean 2space prohibits such objects from the set of possible polygons. The default polytope will probably be a 2dimensional square; thus the default ambient space will likely be Euclidean 2space. See also: karda, korfaipletomino


aftobuso


apma


avgadro
fu'ivla x_{1} is Avogadro constant N_{A} [ approximately equal to: 6.02214129(27)×10^{23} mol^{−1}], expressed in units x_{2} in paradigm/system/metaphysics/universe x_{3} (default: this, our actual, physical universe) See also plankexu, tcelerita, gravnutnoia, boltsemaku, ocnerta, molro, kamre


bancu
gismu rafsi: bac x_{1} exceeds/is beyond limit/boundary x_{2} from x_{3} in property/amount x_{4} (ka/ni). On the other side of a bound, but not necessarily directly 'across' nor at the shortest plausible distance (per ragve); also not limited to position in space. See also dukse, ragve, zmadu, kuspe.


bandu
