jviso
experimental gismu x_{1} is the ISO designation/result/standard/code for topic x_{2} applied to specific case/individual/group/thing x_{3} according to rule/ISO specification x_{4} published by/according to mandating organization x_{5} (default: ISO) Theoretically, the standard organization/body could be other than ISO, but it should be prominent and/or international (and internationally recognized) in scope and nature; in such a case, replace each occurrence of "ISO" in the definition with the appropriate name/designation/title (of the organization, etc.). x1 need not be a namedesignation/code (it could be the result of any rule), although it likely will commonly be so. Examples of possible x2filling sumti: codedesignations for language, country, currency, script, etc.. For an entity with a given code, use terjviso or terseljviso (specifying the type of entity being designated by use of the appropriate terbri j2); for a given ISO rule, consider veljviso; for the organization ISO, consider xeljviso. See also: linga, landa, rucni, cilfu, jvinjiata/jvisiata, jvinjica'o/jvisica'o, jvisuai, jvisiupaco, jvisrcei, jvisrbipmo. This word is the gismu version of: javniso/jvaiso.


se'u'o
experimental cmavo selbri conversion question Asks for the SE word that is intended (or at least makes the sentence true). Subscript a set of numbers that represent the order of terbri in question; the subscripted set can be a set of ordered or unordered tuples, specifying exactly which terbri may be exchanged. 'la .ralf. se'u'o xi li re ce li ci pi'u li re cebo li ci klama by boi cy' = 'Did Ralph come to B from C or to C from B?' (notably, 'Did B come to Ralph from C?' is not a possible option for answering the question). An answer is a SE string that is allowed by the selbri and by the subscripts; continuing the example, if the response is 'Ralph went to C from B', one would respond with '.i setese'. Any SE word works for the general question possibility (which is the unrestricted/nonsubscripted case). Essentially 'se'u'o xi sy' is equivalent to 'se xi li xo poi ke'a cmima sy' (where 'te' is basically understood as ' se xi li jo'i pa boi ci te'u ', etc.), but the answer can be a complicated ordered sequence/string of SE words; this word complements specifically fi'a in the typical/same way that SE complements FA. Typically, leaving the subscripted set vague or not completely free of every possible semantic or syntactic pathology is perfectly fine; syntax and practicality will typically restrict it enough for reasonable responses to be made. See also: re'au'e (which alone would be used in answering that 'Ralph goes to B from C' in the previous question).


tcanaba
fu'ivla x_{1} (node/vertex/station) is forward of/along from x_{2} in oriented graph x_{3} (graph with orientation) using oriented edge path x_{4} (ordered sequence of ordered pairs). The path from x_{2} to x_{1} runs along/is coparallel with/downstream of the orientation on x_{3} along path x_{4}. Orientation is given from/by x3, so only an edge need be submitted if x3 is fully specified; if x3 is not fully specified, x4 can take the burden of specifying the orientation and subgraph of particular interest (namely, the two vertices x1 and x2, intervening vertices along the path, and the orientation of the given edges connecting them). Note that on an unoriented edge or along a cycle, x1 and x2 might be able to exchange places and/or be equal one another. x4 is an ordered sequence of ordered pairs; the first entry of each pair is the origin node, the second pair is the destination node; the path should probably be connected (so that the destination node of one pair is the origin node of the next, except possibly if it is the last such pair). x1 is not necessarily next (id est: forward adjacent of/from) x2, but it can be. Useful for pages, webpages, family relationships, utterances, etc. See also: grafu, tcanaca, tcanapu.


tcanapu
fu'ivla x_{1} (node/vertex/station) is backward of/along from x_{2} in oriented graph x_{3} (graph with orientation) using oriented edge path x_{4} (ordered sequence of ordered pairs; oriented edges). The path from x_{2} to x_{1} along the (nowunoriented version of the) edges used in x_{4} is counter/against/upstream of the orientation of x_{3} (and/or given by the oriented version of x_{4}). Orientation is given from/by x3, so only an edge need be submitted if x3 is fully specified; if x3 is not fully specified, x4 can take the burden of specifying the orientation and subgraph of particular interest (namely, the two vertices x1 and x2, intervening vertices along the path, and the orientation of the given edges connecting them). Note that on an unoriented edge or along a cycle, x1 and x2 might be able to exchange places and/or be equal one another. x4 is an ordered sequence of ordered pairs; the first entry of each pair is the origin node, the second pair is the destination node; the path should probably be connected (so that the destination node of one pair is the origin node of the next, except possibly if it is the last such pair). x1 is not necessarily last (id est: backward adjacent of/from) x2, but it can be. Useful for pages, webpages, family relationships, utterances, etc. See also: grafu, tcanaba, tcanaca


aigne
fu'ivla x_{1} is an eigenvalue (or zero) of linear transformation/square matrix x_{2}, associated with/'owning' all vectors in generalized eigenspace x_{3} (implies neither nondegeneracy nor degeneracy; default includes the zero vector) with 'eigenspacegeneralization' power/exponent x_{4} (typically and probably by cultural default will be 1), with algebraic multiplicity (of eigenvalue) x_{5} For any eigenvector v in generalized eigenspace x_{3} of linear transformation x_{2} for eigenvalue x_{1}, where I is the identity matrix/transformation that works/makes sense in the context, the following equation is satisfied: ((x_{2}  x_{1} I)^x_{4})v = 0. When the argument of x_{4} is 1, the generalized eigenspace x_{3} is simply a strict/simple/basic eigenspace; this is the typical (and probable cultural default) meaning of this word. x_{4} will typically be restricted to integer values k > 0. x_{2} should always be specified (at least implicitly by context), for an eigenvalue does not mean much without the linear transformation being known. However, since one usually knows the said linear transformation, and since the basic underlying relationship of this word is "eigenness", the eigenvalue is given the primary terbri (x_{1}). When filling x_{3} and/or x_{4}, x_{2} and x_{1} (in that order of importance) should already be (at least contextually implicitly) specified. x_{3} is the set of all eigenvectors of linear transformation x_{2}, endowed with all of the typical operations of the vector space at hand. The default includes the zero vector (else the x_{3} eigenspace is not actually a vector space); normally in the context of mathematics, the zero vector is not considered to be an eigenvector, but by this definition it is included. Thus, a Lojban mathematician would consider the zero vector to be an (automatic) eigenvector of the given (in fact, any) linear transformation (particularly ones represented by a square matrix in a given basis). This is the logically most basic definition, but is contrary to typical mathematical culture. This word implies neither nondegeneracy nor degeneracy of eigenspace x_{3}. In other words there may or may not be more than one linearly independent vector in the eigenspace x_{3} for a given eigenvalue x_{1} of linear transformation x_{2}. x_{3} is the unique generalized eigenspace of x_{2} for given values of x_{1} and x_{4}. x_{1} is not necessarily the unique eigenvalue of linear transformation x_{2}, nor is its multiplicity necessarily 1 for the same. Beware when converting the terbri structure of this word. In fact, the set of all eigenvalues for a given linear transformation x_{2} will include scalar zero (0); therefore, any linear transformation with a nontrivial set of eigenvalues will have at least two eigenvalues that may fill in terbri x_{1} of this word. The 'eigenvalue' of zero for a proper/nice linear transformation will produce an 'eigenspace' that is equivalent to the entire vector space at hand. If x_{3} is specified by a set of vectors, the span of that set should fully yield the entire eigenspace of the linear transformation x_{2} associated with eigenvalue x_{1}, however the set may be redundant (linearly dependent); the zero vector is automatically included in any vector space. A multidimensional eigenspace (that is to say a vector space of eigenvectors with dimension strictly greater than 1) for fixed eigenvalue and linear transformation (and generalization exponent) is degenerate by definition. The algebraic multiplicity x_{5} of the eigenvalue does not entail degeneracy (of eigenspace) if greater than 1; it is the integer number of occurrences of a given eigenvalue x_{1} in the multiset of eigenvalues (spectrum) of the given linear transformation/square matrix x_{2}. In other words, the characteristic polynomial can be factored into linear polynomial primes (with root x_{1}) which are exponentiated to the power x_{5} (the multiplicity; notably, not x_{4}). For x_{4} > x_{5}, the eigenspace is trivial. x_{2} may not be diagonalizable. The scalar zero (0) is a naturally permissible argument of x_{1} (unlike some cultural mathematical definitions in English). Eigenspaces retain the operations and properties endowing the vectorspaces to which they belong (as subspaces). Thus, an eigenspace is more than a set of objects: it is a set of vectors such that that set is endowed with vectorspace operators and properties. Thus klesi alone is insufficient. But the set underlying eigenspace x_{3} is a type of klesi, with the property of being closed under linear transformation x_{2} (up to scalar multiplication). The vector space and basis being used are not specified by this word. Use this word as a seltau in constructions such as "eigenket", "eigenstate", etc. (In such cases, te aigne is recommended for the typical English usages of such terms. Use zei in lujvo formed by these constructs. The term "eigenvector" may be rendered as cmima be le te aigne). See also gei'ai, klesi, daigno


brivlacme
lujvo c_{1} (quoted word(s)) is a name of c_{2} used by c_{3} that morphologically [strict] is brivla bv_{1} in language x_{5} The name must strictly be a (sequence of) brivla (according to rules for language x5); as such, in Lojban, the word(s) c1 must end with vowels and in fact must exactly follow the morphology of brivla. See also: brivlasmicme (a specialization); jvocme (a different specialization that is analogous but restricted to Lojbanic lujvo). Language is specified to be x5 rather than bv_n because the definition for brivla has not yet gained consensus and this particular terbri is dependent thereupon.


cmavo
gismu rafsi: ma'o x_{1} is a structure word of grammatical class x_{2}, with meaning/function x_{3} in usage (language) x_{4}. x_{4} may be a specific usage (with an embedded language place) or a massified language description; x_{3} and x_{4} may be merely an example of cmavo usage or refer to an actual expression; cmavo list, if physical object (= (loi) ma'oste); referring to the mental construct (e.g. propose adding a new cmavo to the cmavo list = ma'orpoi, ma'orselcmi, ma'orselste). See also gismu, lujvo, gerna, smuni, valsi.


cmima
gismu rafsi: mim cmi x_{1} is a member/element of set x_{2}; x_{1} belongs to group x_{2}; x_{1} is amid/among/amongst group x_{2}. x_{1} may be a complete or incomplete list of members; x_{2} is normally marked by la'i/le'i/lo'i, defining the set in terms of its common property(ies), though it may be a complete enumeration of the membership. See also ciste, porsi, jbini, girzu, gunma, klesi, cmavo list mei, kampu, lanzu, liste.


cpedu
gismu rafsi: cpe x_{1} requests/asks/petitions/solicits for x_{2} of/from x_{3} in manner/form x_{4}. Also demand (= mi'ecpe); x_{4} is a means of expression See also ve cusku.: a request may be indicated in speech, in writing, or by an action (e.g. petitions are often in writing, while begging/panhandling may be indicated by an action or even demeanor). (cf. pikci, te preti, te frati, se spuda, danfu)


dimnu'e
lujvo x_{1} swears / takes an oath, promising/asserting x_{2} (abstraction), invoking fate x_{3} (abstraction) x_{2} could be a nuevent or kaaction that x_{1} intends to happen or perform, or a du'uproposition that x_{1} swears the truth of. x_{3} is a fate (typically bad) that x_{1} invokes on themself should they break the oath. tu'a can be used to raise x_{3}, to swear by a treasured possession (implied fate being loss of that possession), or a deity (implied fate being the wrath of said deity). See dimna, maldimna, nupre, cevni, dapma


fai'a
experimental cmavo translation marker  original/native version: marks a construct as having been translated and therefore particularly (possibly, but not necessarily) susceptible to the errors or limitations associated with translation (especially if the translator is unsure of the best result/option) Might be useful for translations of idioms, songs, poetry, wordplay, political speeches, nuanced phrasings, (in stories) prophecies, riddles, rhymes, etc. Followed by members of selma'o CAI, the marker indicates the corresponding level of uncertainty in the best possible choice of translation according to the opinion/expectation/judgment of the speaker/translator. Also may indicate a cultural or linguistic gap. For Lojban especially, it might be useful when various ambiguities arise in the original text and the translator is forced to pick interpretations from among them.


fi'ikca
fu'ivla x_{1} takes a fika [social institution]/coffee break together with x_{2} consuming food/beverage x_{3}. From the swedish word "fika". Both "fika" and "fi'ikca" are also derived from the word for coffee in respectively language (kaffi respectively ckafi). fi'ikca describes the event where you socialize with others, perhaps over a cup of coffee. In a swedish context x2 might often be friends or fellow workers, and x3 usually is coffee/squash/(tea) together with a cinnamon roll, cookie, cake, a sandwich etc. But fi'ikca could also be used in a more universal, cultural neutral sense. See also coffeehouse/coffee bar (=kafybarja), making coffee (=kafpra).


friti
gismu rafsi: fit x_{1} offers/proffers x_{2} [offering] to x_{3} with conditions x_{4}. (x_{4} may be nu canja, nu pleji, etc.; an unconditional offering has the 'condition' of acceptance); x_{2} may be a specific object, a commodity (mass), an event, or a property; pedantically, for objects/commodities, this is sumtiraising from ownership of the object/commodity (= posfriti, posyselfriti for unambiguous semantics). See also canja, dunda, rinsa, vecnu, jdima, cnemu, pleji, vitke.


goilka'i
fu'ivla x_{1} (text / virtualtextobject) is a variable representing x_{2} goi is a special case that makes, e.g. zo ko'a, a goilka'i of something. However the main use of this brivla is to allow ko'a itself, or something like {la .strin.}, to be a virtual "text" standing in for some object, while la'e is used to extract the referent from it. This allows propositions to be truthconditional on what a variable represents at that point of time, rather than conditional on the referent itself. See sumka'i, goilgau, goilbi'o, krati.


impetu
fu'ivla x_{1} is the momentum [vector] of x_{2} in frame of reference x_{3} x_{1} can be a vector, e.g. fourvector. Might be pretty general in its semantic scope ("quantity of movement"); at the very least includes both Relativistic (fourvector) and Newtonian (threevector) momentum (resp.: nejnimpetu, sirmpetu); might also encompass angular momentum (cnampetu, typically threevector). See also nejni, nejnimpetu, sirmpetu, ocnerta, tcelerita, cnampetu


je'aunai
cmavocompound discursive: correcting/corrective/correction  inattentive/uncaring/neutral toward the presence of possible errors  permitting (known/likely/plausible) errordiscursive: correcting/corrective/correction  inattentive/uncaring/neutral toward the presence of possible errors  permitting (known/likely/plausible) error/incompleteness/approximation Not quite lying since this construct alerts the audience in good faith to the presence of (known/plausible/likely) errors or "incomplete truths" in the utterance; the plausibility and pertinence of the presence of such errors is subject to the utterer's judgment, opinion, knowledge, philosphy, desire to draw attention to them at that stage in the discussion, belief, etc.  in other words, absolute Truth (such as in an existential sense external to the utterer) does not necessarily result in the utterance of this construct, even if errors may be present. Potentially useful for academic or technical honesty. "Error" may be rendered as "incompleteness of truth" or "approximation" in this context.
