lojbo jufsisku
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gismu rafsi: zuk zu'e x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal x3/to end x3. Also acting at, undertaking, doing; agentive cause with volition/purpose; also x3 objective, end. See also cmavo list zu'e, bapli, gunka, jalge, krinu, mukti, rinka, snuti, gasnu, fasnu, minji, prenu, ciksi, jibri, pilno, pluta, tadji, tutci.
experimental cmavo default value (re)specification/(re)assignment/(re)definition/over-write; set new default value (terbri-specific; permanent) Terminates immediately previous sumti. The immediately following (next) unfilled terbri at that level of nesting is affected by this word; if no such terbri exists at that level of nesting, this word's affects apply to the next unfilled terbri in the immediately higher level of nesting (unnested once); if no unfilled terbri exist at any/all levels of nesting and following the immediately previous sumti (even if unfilled terbri exist prior to that sumti), this word has no meaningful affect and can be ignored. This word must be followed by a sumti; for the purpose of this explanation, this sumti will be xy (as in "de'ai xy"). The affected terbri is defined to default to the value xy (the sumti as a whole, including gadri, tanru, relative clauses, etc.); in other words, when not explicitly filled or when filled be di'au, the sumti value filling the affected terbri is that of xy. This affect remains in effect until the end of the text/conversation or until/unless the default setting of this terbri explicitly redefined (overriding by di'ei is temporary/only applies to that usage). If xy is zo'e, the default value is completely general and elliptical; thus, permanently overriding a default setting on a specific terbri may be done by "de'ai zo'e". The scope of this word fully encompasses and ends with the following sumti (xy); thus, the second sumti, same-/higher-level terminator, a FA cmavo, etc. following this word ends the new default specification in addition to its other functions. Additionally, this word does not actually fill the affected terbri with any particular sumti/value; it merely defines its default value hereinafter. CAUTION: Thus, the second same-level sumti uttered actually fills the affected terbri; in order to access the newly-defined default value of the terbri immediately after definition, follow "xy" (with terminator) immediately with implicit (or possibly explicit) "zo'e" (possibly necessitating terminators), "di'au", or "xy" itself. Moreover, therefore, the default value defined by this word does not immediately/necessarily affect the truth value of the statement in which it appears (it only does so if the second following sumti is not di'au, implicit (or possibly) explicit zo'e, or xy itself); however, in all future uses of the brivla to which the terbri belongs, unless explicitly filled with a sumti of a different value, the truth value of those statements will be affected. Also, su does not erase this new definition of default. If the affected terbri is naturally defined to have a default or if it has no naturally defined default value, this word semi-permanently over-writes them. See also: dai'o, de'au, de'ei, de'oi, di'au, di'ei, di'oi.
experimental cmavo Cancellation (instant-/usage-wise; temporary) of all defaults in immediately previous word Cancels/overrides/ignores/"kills" all defaults (default specifications) in the (terbri) structure of immediately previously uttered word so that implicit/omitted zo'e and{di’au} that may fill the terbri of that word are general in potential reference (modulo context) and do not necessarily agree with the default setting explicitly specified in the discourse-external/“official” definition of the word. The terbri are not filled by this word. Usage is only meaningful for a brivla with at least one terbri (regardless of being explicitly filled or otherwise). In a tanru or other complicated construct, only the most recent word undergoes this terbri default override (not every term in the construct). A selbri converted to a sumti by gadri has the x1 terbri filled for the purposes of this word, but the default setting of that terbri is so overridden all the same; likewise is the case for terbri accessed by be or bei; seltau in the main level of a sumti are filled by the gadri as well for the purposes of this word. The cancellation is only effective for the single occurrence/instant/usage of this word (the next use of the affected word will be implicitly accompanied by its terbri defaults, as defined elsewhere (by official definition or by other (permanent) modifications made to the word)). See also: doi'a, de'au, zmico.
experimental cmavo pro-sumti and sumyzmico: an elliptical/unspecified value which does not necessarily obey the default setting for the corresponding terbri that is explicitly specified in the definition of the word; has some value which makes bridi true Some brivla have default specifications for certain terbri; when any explicit sumti is omitted from filling these terbri (an implicit zo'e fills them instead), the meaning of that sumti is interpreted in accordance with the default specification; it is reasonable to suppose that an explicit zo'e used in order to fill such terbri will likewise obey the default specification in its interpretation. Thus, there is no simple way to reference the "general" elliptical/unspecified value for these sumti, other than by using this word. zo'e typically is interpreted as meaning any value of some general and unspecified set of potential sumti referents, modulated by context and the need to make the statement true; in the case of an explicit default setting of a terbri by the definition of a word, di'ei takes on this general and unspecified meaning, effectively ignoring the default (although it can take on the value of that default (doing so, simply, is just not necessary)); when no default is specified for the terbri in the definition, this word has the same meaning as zo'e. See also: di'au, di'oi, zmico.
experimental cmavo gafyzmico: Reset all default specification of the immediately previous word to their respective discourse-external/official definition specifications for this instance/usage only. Resets all defaults (default specifications) in the (terbri) structure of immediately previously uttered word so that implicit/omitted zo'e and di'au that may fill the terbri of that word are predefined/specific in reference and do indeed necessarily agree with the default setting explicitly specified in the discourse-exterior/”official” definition of the word. The terbri are not filled by this word. Usage is only meaningful for a brivla with at least one terbri (regardless of being explicitly filled or otherwise). In a tanru or other complicated construct, only the most recent word undergoes this terbri default restoration (not every term in the construct). A selbri converted to a sumti by gadri has the x1 terbri filled for the purposes of this word, but the default setting of that terbri is so restored all the same; likewise is the case for terbri accessed by be or bei; seltau in the main level of a sumti are filled by the gadri as well for the purposes of this word. The restoration is only effective for the single occurrence/instant/usage of this word (the next use of the affected word will be implicitly accompanied by its terbri defaults, as defined elsewhere (by official definition or by other (permanent) modifications made to the word)). See also: dau'a, de'oi, zmico
experimental cmavo change version/dialect of parser do'u is the elidable terminator. The morphology and the grammar of cmevla/sumti/selbri following jo'au should conform to the version 134 of the page ``BPFK Section: PEG Morphology Algorithm'' on the website lojban.org and the official grammar so that a jo'au clause forms a free modifier compatible with every version/dialect of lojban parser: for example, ``jo'au jie bu'' and ``jo'au xy xi xei'' are not meaningful clauses. As a standard usage, jo'au clause appears at the very beginning of the whole text, just as the inverse of the usage of fa'o. The scope of the meaning of jo'au clause spans over the following part until the next jo'au clause appears. Optionally, if the first jo'au clause appears in the middle of a text, the meaning of it spans from the beginning of the text until the next jo'au clause appears. Examples of meaning: jo'au cylyly xi papipa (official yacc and jbofi'e http://www.lojban.org/jboski/ ); jo'au camxes (current peg http://camxes.lojban.org/ ); jo'au iocixes (zasni gerna of la xorxes https://skami2.iocikun.jp/lojban/zasniGerna , http://www.lojban.org/tiki/zasni+gerna ); jo'au zantufa xi nopipapa (zantufa version 0.11 http://guskant.github.io/gerna_cipra/zantufa-0.11.html ); jo'au ilmentufa xi renopavopi'epapapi'erevo (ilmentufa version 2014-11-24 http://mw.lojban.org/extensions/ilmentufa/camxes-exp.html , https://github.com/Ilmen-vodhr/ilmentufa ); jo'au fancylojban (fancylojban http://mw.lojban.org/lmw/fancylojban , http://mw.lojban.org/lmw/ce_ki_tau_jau .); jo'au gadganzu (gadri reinterpretation/reassignment proposal, http://mw.lojban.org/papri/zipcpi:_Yet_another_gadri_article ; no grammar changes, only semantic)
experimental cmavo selbri conversion question Asks for the SE word that is intended (or at least makes the sentence true). Subscript a set of numbers that represent the order of terbri in question; the subscripted set can be a set of ordered or unordered tuples, specifying exactly which terbri may be exchanged. 'la .ralf. se'u'o xi li re ce li ci pi'u li re cebo li ci klama by boi cy' = 'Did Ralph come to B from C or to C from B?' (notably, 'Did B come to Ralph from C?' is not a possible option for answering the question). An answer is a SE string that is allowed by the selbri and by the subscripts; continuing the example, if the response is 'Ralph went to C from B', one would respond with '.i setese'. Any SE word works for the general question possibility (which is the unrestricted/non-subscripted case). Essentially 'se'u'o xi sy' is equivalent to 'se xi li xo poi ke'a cmima sy' (where 'te' is basically understood as ' se xi li jo'i pa boi ci te'u ', etc.), but the answer can be a complicated ordered sequence/string of SE words; this word complements specifically fi'a in the typical/same way that SE complements FA. Typically, leaving the subscripted set vague or not completely free of every possible semantic or syntactic pathology is perfectly fine; syntax and practicality will typically restrict it enough for reasonable responses to be made. See also: re'au'e (which alone would be used in answering that 'Ralph goes to B from C' in the previous question).
experimental cmavo mekso unary operator: basic Schlafli symbol composer (defined only on ordered lists) Given an ordered (typically finite) list (which is a single object) of zero or more (probably nonnegative) rational numbers, L = (X_1, X_2, ..., X_n). This word composes them in order into a Schlafli symbol S(L) with these entries exactly and without any entries that do not appear in the list so as to produce an (n-1)-dimensional regular polytope. For example: L = () implies that S(L) = S(()) is a line segment. Where L = (6), S(L) = S((6)) is a regular convex hexagon; generally, for integer X_1 > 2, S((X_1)) is a proper convex regular (X_1)-gon. S((X_1, X_2) is a proper convex regular polyhedron with polygonal faces being all of form S((X_1)) such that they are arranged with X_2 touching at each vertex of the polyhedron. Star polytopes and tessellations are supported. More general notation such as Schlafli symbols prefixed by a letter/acted upon by a function, which are affixed with/multiplied by a number or other symbols, which contain "|", etc. are not presently supported in this definition; only the most basic/classic Schlafli symbols (those composed of a single pair of curly braces containing rational numbers separated only by commas, and nothing else) are presently supported. Certain operators (such as "half", "alter", etc., as well as Cartesian product, "add"/"plus", and "join", and affixation of other numbers or symbols) have somewhat special definitions on Schlafli symbols; they are presently not supported in Lojban (but this will hopefully soon change). Not all ordered lists will produce good output. See also: tarmrclefli
experimental cmavo begin quote that is converted into rafsi Terminated by zei'oi. Quotes an utterance (must be grammatical) and converts it (as a whole) into a single rafsi with the meaning of "something to do with the referent of "[insert quoted text]"". Notably, does not distribute through the text, treating each word individually with left-grouping (it does not distribute zei before and/or after each word (as needed)); the quoted utterance is taken as a whole unit of meaning unto itself; for the former purpose, see zei'ei'au. This word is useful for forming quotes and mathematical expressions (formal, evaluated, or otherwise) into lujvo. This rafsi is assumed to begin the next word if the preceding text/utterance does not end with an otherwise standalone and ungrammatical rafsi (the grammar in such a situation should be discussed); in order to connect it as a rafsi within a lujvo that began before it, precede the quotation with zei. In order to finish a lujvo or treat the quotation as a brivla on its own, follow it with co'e, which is treated as if the preceding utterance (the quote) is a single word followed immediately by zei; in order to string multiple ZEIhEI-ZEIhOI rafsi together follow this formula: zei'ei broda zei'oi co'e zei zei'ei brode zei'oi (co'e (zei...))... . Individual rafsi outside of lujvo are typically not grammatical (except in certain quotation structures, vel sim.).
experimental cmavo begin quote that is converted into rafsi, distributing lujvo-glue between quoted words Terminated by zei'oi. Begins a quote of a grammatical utterance. Between each word in the utterance, zei is to be interpreted and any grouping that might be applied is left-grouping. In other words, zei is distributed left-groupingly between each word; each word is treated on its own, individually; the quote is not treated as a whole. The final word is interpreted to have zei after it as well (this is a quirk of zei'oi), thus the quote is a string of rafsi, left-groupingly considered to be a rafsi. In order to end the lujvo formed with such a quote, follow it by co'e. This word compactifies large zei-clauses/-statements. For the perhaps generally more useful, if slightly more ambiguous, quote marker that treats the quote as a whole entity and converts it singly and wholly into a rafsi (rather than a rafsi string, as is done by this word), see: zei'ei. This word works as zei'ei does in all other regards (including as a marker for a new word (specifically a lujvo) unless preceded by zei or possibly by a standalone and otherwise ungrammatical rafsi). For the purpose of quoting with ra'oi, the result of a zei'ei'au-quote is treated as a single rafsi.
experimental cmavo mekso string operator (ternary): find-and-replace; in string/text/word/sequence X1 formally replace X2 (ordered tuple of terms to be replaced) with X3 (ordered tuple of terms to be respectively substituted) X2 and X3 are ordered tuples of substrings/letters/characters/letterals/digits/numerals. The ith term in tuple X2 is replaced with the ith term in tuple X3; the replacements are executed simultaneously (thus, no overlap/contradiction can be allowed to arise in the substitution- in particular, in X2) - alternatively, if there is overlap/conflict in/between the terms of X2, the replacements are performed in order of presentation (the ith term in X2 is replaced by the ith term in X3, and then the (i+1)th term in X2 is replaced with the (i+1)th term in X3, starting with the 1st term in each). X2 and X3 must have the same length/number of terms - alternatively, X3 cannot be longer/have more terms than X2; in this situation, the ith term of X2 is replaced with the ith term of X3 until and including when the last term of X3 is reached, after which point the remaining terms in X2 are not replaced at all. Use a permutation acting on X2 as the argument for X3 in order to rearrange the substrings of X1; if the alphabet is ordered, then operators can be applied to the letters in order to rotate through the alphabet. In particular, if X1 is a binary string (a word over an alphabet of two letters) and X2 is the 2-tuple of the letters of that binary alphabet (length-1 substrings), then without specification of X3, this operator defaults to bitwise binary negation (bit conjugation) wherein each letter in X1 is replaced by the unique other letter in the binary alphabet (otherwise, the replacement would be the identity/trivial replacement or just a formal substitution letter-by-letter which does not really change the nature of the word). X1 and each entry in X2 and X3 should be quoted, match a necessary type (such as being a character), or be abstracted a level by symbolics. In general, the replacement is formal and the strings in X3 need not be over the same alphabet as the one over which X1 is written. This operator is useful for combinatorial lines and for expanding digits (such as, in a binary string, replacing each occurrence of "0" with "01" and each occurrence of "1" with "10"; note that the replacement is instantaneous and simultaneous for all terms of X2 and every occurrence of such terms in X1, thus this substitution is perfectly acceptable).
experimental gismu x1 is counterclockwise/left-turn-direction of[/to] x2 along/following track x3 [path] in frame of reference x4 (where the axis is within the region defined by the track as the boundary, as viewed from and defined by view(er) x4; see notes); x1 is locally to the left of x2, according to x4, constrained along x3; x1 is along a left turn from x2 along path x3, as viewed in frame x4. Angular/curling direction: counterclockwise. The orientation of the path determines x4 but does not factor into consideration for x3. Further glosses: counterclockwise, locally leftward, left-turning (with no bulk translation) in a way that would be characterized as "positive" by the right-hand rule (aligned with and in the direction of a basis vector, at least for a given component). x1 is right-handedly/counterclockwise(ly) oriented relative to x2 on/along x3 in frame of reference x4 x1 is right-handed (one sense) from x2 [more accurately: moving from x2 to x1 requires a(n imaginary) motion that is right-handed along x3 as seen in frame/orientation/perspective x4]. x1 is to the path-following left of x2 (where the path is connected; as such, x1 is also be to the path-following right of x2, although there is an implication that the former is the smaller (or equal-length) path). See also: dutso, za'ei (vectorial cross product), zu'au (modal). Proposed short rafsi: -zuc-, -zu'a-. (If “zn” ever becomes a permissible initial consonant pair, krtisfranks proposes that “-zna-” become a rafsi of this word- it makes zucna and dutso more parallel in lujvo formation, and he is of the opinion that this word is useful and basic enough to warrant such a prized rafsi assignment; after this addition, the current two rafsi proposals can be done away with, reassigned, maintained, vel sim. as desired by the community at the time. In particular, he recognizes that “-zu’a-” might be confusing as a rafsi for this word while being a modal cmavo for zunle; but he does believe that this word deserves a vowel-final short rafsi.)
experimental gismu x1 dons metaphorical asbestos suit x2 to guard against flames x3 on topic x4 from x5, who disagrees with post x6 for reason x7, not realizing that the post was meant to be sent to x8 rather than all of mailing list x9 (default jboste) where it was posted in response to email x10, whose author wishes selma'o x11 (default SE) were extended to concisely express place x12 of brivla x13 (default besto) which has place structure x14 and too many places because of sadistic whim x15 of brivla-maker x16, who also created brivla x17 which has place structure x18, and so winds up using too many of cmavo x19 (default zi'o) in order to make the brivla ( x13) more usable by standard x20 and wishes they had never heard of the word besto for reason x21, not realizing for reason x22 that it was suggested sarcastically due to boredom x23 of person x24, who is proposing it against better judgement x25 because it is fun by standard x26, but still wishes it had as many places as x27 (default du) for reason x28, and feels like throwing in epistemology sumti x29, because he/she knows both that gismu x30 (default besto) has its place structure defined by run-on sentence x31 and that epistemology sumti are used in gismu x32 by epistemology x33, notwithstanding the fact that x34 actually has a use for besto places x35 (default 1) through x36 (default x7) and wishes this weren't an extremely long and stupid joke, longer than joke x37 and stupider than joke x38 but still appreciated by x39 - a fact which says x40 about them in the opinion of x41 - but not seen as even remotely amusing by x42, who is aware that x43 has a use for the gismu besto because of x45 A joke gismu from http://mw.lojban.org/index.php?title=besto . Place x_44 is absent for some reason
experimental cmavo semi-mathematical binary operator: named number base operator/interpreter Follows a number and is followed by a sumti string (introduced with appropriate gadri, multiple sumti strung together via connectives); scope terminates with the end of the sumti and/or with ke'e'au. The construct as a whole syntactically functions as a parenthetical so that mekso may be resumed immediately thereafter without any difficulty. This word attaches to/affects the immediately preceding macrodigit string extending from the last evaluated number, number operation, etc. or bracket to/until this word. The preceding number is semantically interpreted according to the description to which the following sumti refers. If a sequence is supplied as the following sumti, the preceding number is interpreted so that each digit, starting from the left (default: see next), is understood as a multiple of the corresponding value in the sequence under the ordering given (which may produce an invalid/ill-formed result; the placement of pi matters as well). If a single number is submitted (such as "li dau"), this word acts as ju'u; the number is interpreted according to the rules of mekso and is its own island for such interpretation (thus ju'u is needed to override a cultural/grammatical default interpretation, such as decimal, even if this is done within the mekso expression outside of and including the scope of this word). In this way, the sumti being (10^n)_n, which is a sequence, is the same as the sumti being just 10, but is very different from it being the sequence (10)_n. The original default for numeral-position/string reading/interpretation is from left-to-right, where a digit on the left in a pair of digits represents that multiple of a "later" term in the sequence as compared to right member of the pair; thus "23" in decimal means (2*(10^1)) + (3*(10^0)), which is twenty-three. This default may be overridden via specification of the sequence (either its ordering, its domain being negated, or alteration to the base); alternatively, and perhaps more easily, the appearance of "la'e zoi jbo. ri'u bi'o zu'a .jbo" will always reverse it (this is a special input value with interpretation defined by this grammar); when reversed, "23" in decimal means (2*(10^0)) + (3*(10^1)), which is to say thirty-two. Generally, this word overrides the default interpretation of a string of microdigits when computing the value of a macrodigit (see: ju'u'i). See also: ju'u, ju'u'i, pi'e.
experimental cmavo long-digit interpretation specifier; macrodigit named base specifier When a string of multiple digits is on either side of pi'e, the string is to be interpreted as a single "macrodigit" in the longer numeric string; let the digits that compose it be called "microdigits" for clarity. By default, the macrodigit is interpreted as being written/expressed in some cultural or grammatical default (this default is overridden by ju'au if its specifying sumti requires an alternative interpretation for the value of the macrodigits), probably decimal- the interpretation of the string of microdigits produces a number, x; the "pi'e" implies the denominator to be used in determining the fraction for which x is in the numerator and context or possibly a specified base determines its value- in timekeeping, the interpretation is typically x/60 for certain macrodigits. However, the default for determining the value of x given a string of microdigits might be useful to override (for example, Tsohnai uses an overall factorial base but each macrodigit is written in balanced quinary); this word specifies the base used for interpreting the macrodigit from a string of microdigits. It is placed at the end of the string (possibly before the next "pi'e") and its scope of effect extends from there, through the string of microdigits, to either the beginning of the number as a whole or the most recent "pi'e" (whichsoever was more recently uttered). It is to be followed by a sumti (or multiple sumti strung together by connectives) and has its scope of specification terminate with that sumti; in this regard, it works syntactically and semantically exactly like ju'au. In fact, ju'au can be used outside of the number in order to specify the macrodigit interpretation instead of this word (for example, if its sumti were la .tsonais., this word would not be needed); however, if only a sequence were to have been given as the argument of ju'au (such as the factorial sequence) and if some base other than decimal were desired for the interpretation of each macrodigit from the string of microdigits, then this word would be used. If only one macrodigit appears in the number, then this word is equivalent to ju'au. In short, the scope of this word is one contiguous string of microdigits, and it influences their interpretation into a macrodigit value in the same way that ju'au does. However, if both ju'au and this word specify how to interpret a given string of microdigits in the same number (composed of macrodigits), this word overrides the interpretation specified by ju'au (but only for this macrodigit); thus, for example, a Tsohnai number can have each of its macrodigits be interpreted in balanced quinary except one, which the speaker specifies via this word, because they know the value but did not want to convert it to balanced quinary (because it may be too large or hard to do so easily), so they instead expressed it in decimal.